Q&A: Jailed Nun Voices No Regret for Trespassing at Nuclear-Arms Facility

Prior to infiltrating the Y-12 facility grounds last year, Megan Rice poses with fellow activists Michael Walli, left, and Greg Boertje-Obed. In a written interview, Rice expressed no regrets about the July 2012 nuclear-weapons protest, for which she and her two accomplices each face up to 30 years in prison.
National Journal
Diane Barnes
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Diane Barnes
Dec. 22, 2013, 11:02 p.m.

Megan Rice, an 83-year-old nun in cus­tody in Ocilla, Ga., says she was mak­ing a state­ment.

In an un­usu­al ex­change of ques­tions and an­swers with a re­port­er, Rice said the peace­ful demon­stra­tion she staged last year with two oth­er act­iv­ists in­side the Y-12 Na­tion­al Se­cur­ity Com­plex in Ten­ness­ee un­der­scored a need for world­wide dis­arm­a­ment by ex­pos­ing the danger of nuc­le­ar ar­sen­als in stark terms.

Rice and her ac­com­plices each face a pos­sible three-dec­ade pris­on sen­tence for their Ju­ly 2012 ac­tion at Y-12, which handles sens­it­ive ma­ter­i­als and com­pon­ents for nuc­le­ar weapons.

Writ­ing from the Ir­win County De­ten­tion Cen­ter, where she awaits sen­ten­cing on Jan. 28 with the two men who joined her in il­leg­ally en­ter­ing Y-12 grounds, Rice said a max­im­um pun­ish­ment would only fur­ther be­ne­fit their cause. It could chal­lenge “con­sciences to act” crit­ic­ally to­ward ar­gu­ments that nuc­le­ar weapons are ne­ces­sary tools for coun­tries to help en­sure sta­bil­ity and de­fend their in­terests.

“I ex­pect only a life sen­tence to con­tin­ue to live in truth, com­pas­sion and love for all of God’s cre­ation,” Rice said in her hand­writ­ten re­sponse, which soun­ded spir­itu­al themes and spelled out a deeply ideo­lo­gic­al per­spect­ive in re­sponse to nearly every ques­tion. “Keep your eyes on the prize: a healed, peace­ful plan­et.”

Joined by vet­er­an peace act­iv­ists Greg Bo­er­tje-Obed and Mi­chael Walli, Rice hiked through the woods of the 8-square-mile Y-12 cam­pus, loc­ated in east­ern Ten­ness­ee, in the pre­dawn hours of Ju­ly 28, 2012.

After cut­ting through four peri­met­er fences and en­ter­ing Y-12’s “Pro­tec­ted Area” — where guards are au­thor­ized to use leth­al force against in­truders — the three act­iv­ists re­portedly fo­cused their protest on the first build­ing they saw: the store­house where the United States holds highly en­riched urani­um cap­able of fuel­ing nuc­le­ar bombs.

The group pro­ceeded to spray-paint an­ti­war slo­gans, hang mock po­lice tape and throw con­tain­ers of hu­man blood on the 110,000-square-foot Highly En­riched Urani­um Ma­ter­i­als Fa­cil­ity. When a lone guard ar­rived to in­vest­ig­ate, the act­iv­ists read to him a state­ment of their an­ti­nuc­lear views and proffered peace­mak­ing items — candles, flowers, a Bible — pri­or to their ar­rest.

The news that the un­armed pro­test­ers had in­filt­rated a sens­it­ive nuc­le­ar fa­cil­ity in­ten­ded to with­stand a co­ordin­ated ter­ror­ist as­sault stunned those who ima­gined the com­pound to be vir­tu­ally im­pen­et­rable. Se­cur­ity faults noted years earli­er had ap­par­ently gone un­fixed, pos­sibly help­ing the trio to reach the urani­um stor­age fa­cil­ity. The struc­ture stands at the north­ern edge of a 1.3-square-mile cluster of build­ings, with little more than a road and sev­er­al fences di­vid­ing it off from the sur­round­ing trees.

Rice her­self re­called feel­ing “amazement” that it was “so easy” for her to enter the se­cured site with Bo­er­tje-Obed and Walli, who were re­spect­ively 57 and 63 at the time.

The protest ac­tion, which they dubbed “Trans­form Now Plow­shares,” promp­ted a short-term sus­pen­sion of all nuc­le­ar op­er­a­tions at Y-12. In the months that fol­lowed, the U.S. gov­ern­ment moved to re­place the fa­cil­ity’s private op­er­at­or and re­vamp se­cur­ity over­sight at nuc­le­ar-arms sites across the na­tion.

The in­tru­sion also spurred de­bates in Con­gress and the Obama ad­min­is­tra­tion on the pos­sible need for deep­er re­forms, such as boost­ing over­sight of the En­ergy De­part­ment agency re­spons­ible for op­er­a­tions at Y-12 and oth­er U.S. nuc­le­ar-weapons fa­cil­it­ies.

Rice, Bo­er­tje-Obed and Walli were each con­victed in May of two felony counts of in­ter­fer­ing with na­tion­al se­cur­ity and dam­aging gov­ern­ment prop­erty. The three act­iv­ists had served pris­on time for past protest ac­tions, and their entry at Y-12 was one among dozens of demon­stra­tions car­ried out by the Plow­shares peace move­ment since 1980.

“Build­ing nuc­le­ar weapons is a war crime and a griev­ous sin,” Bo­er­tje-Obed told Glob­al Se­cur­ity News­wire in a let­ter mailed in Oc­to­ber from the Ocilla jail fa­cil­ity where the three act­iv­ists are be­ing held pri­or to sen­ten­cing. “The Nurem­berg Prin­ciples state that pre­par­ing for a war crime is a war crime, and thus we have a right and a duty to take steps to in­ter­vene.”

In a sep­ar­ate Oc­to­ber let­ter, Walli linked their protest to the an­ti­nuc­lear views of Mar­tin Luth­er King Jr.

Walli lamen­ted that the group is be­ing held “sub­stan­tially farther” from King’s graves­ite in At­lanta than from Kings Bay, the East Coast home to the U.S. fleet of Ohio-class bal­list­ic mis­sile sub­mar­ines.

“Dr. King had a vis­ion,” Walli wrote. “Pres­id­ent Obama of­fers a night­mare.”

Rice has less pris­on ex­per­i­ence than her two ac­com­plices, but did serve sev­er­al months be­hind bars for her act­iv­ism pri­or to the Y-12 protest. Her par­ti­cip­a­tion in non­vi­ol­ent demon­stra­tions over sev­er­al dec­ades also led to her brief ar­rest on dozens of oc­ca­sions.

As a child, she ap­par­ently had little sense of the polit­ic­al views she would de­vel­op later in life. While at­tend­ing a Cath­ol­ic school in New York City dur­ing World War II, Rice read re­li­giously groun­ded de­fenses of pa­ci­fism and judged them to be “very con­tro­ver­sial,” she re­called in a 2005 in­ter­view.

“None of us were really anti-Amer­ic­an gov­ern­ment,” Rice said then. “Twenty, 30 years later, we began to real­ize the oth­er side. It took a while.”

She re­called com­plet­ing a mas­ter’s de­gree in bio­logy at Bo­ston Col­lege and in 1962 mov­ing to Ni­ger­ia, where she spent her first years teach­ing math­em­at­ics and sci­ence to girls in a se­cluded board­ing school without elec­tri­city or run­ning wa­ter.

Rice be­came in­volved in the U.S. an­ti­nuc­lear move­ment dur­ing stints away from Africa, where she con­tin­ued to teach off and on in Ni­ger­ia and Ghana un­til 2003.

While vis­it­ing New York City in the 1980s, she met with Ja­pan­ese atom­ic-bomb sur­viv­ors and demon­strated against nuc­le­ar weapons as part of a large-scale protest. She later joined the Nevada Desert Ex­per­i­ence, a group op­posed to atom­ic-arms ex­per­i­ments and de­vel­op­ment.

In her 2005 re­marks for an En­ergy De­part­ment-fin­anced col­lec­tion of in­ter­views with act­iv­ists and gov­ern­ment em­ploy­ees tied to the Nevada Na­tion­al Se­cur­ity Site — a Cold War-era nuc­le­ar test­ing ground — Rice ar­gued that the United States has sought to main­tain nuc­le­ar-weapons su­prem­acy in an ef­fort to “be­come the [only] su­per­power.”

“We are still [un­til] today, this very day, not men­tion­ing the real nuc­le­ar powers when we pose the threat of nuc­le­ar buildup in … rogue coun­tries,” she said in the En­ergy-sponsored in­ter­view.

Sev­en years later, she would help carry out what the New York Times called “the biggest se­cur­ity breach in the his­tory of the na­tion’s atom­ic com­plex.”

Ed­ited ex­cerpts of GSN ques­tions and Rice’s Septem­ber mailed re­sponses, which in­clude re­peated ref­er­ences to the in­spir­a­tion she draws from her Cath­ol­ic faith, fol­low:

GSN: How did your group de­cide that break­ing in­to a nuc­le­ar weapons fa­cil­ity was the best way to com­mu­nic­ate its anti-nuc­le­ar-weapons mes­sage?

Rice: … There is no “best way” to com­mu­nic­ate any­thing that is true. … We pre­pared by per­son­al and shared pray­er, dis­cern­ment, study, con­sulta­tion with ex­per­i­enced and wise ex­perts, and by [col­lab­or­at­ing] with the wider peace com­munity work­ing to­wards the rule of law about nuc­le­ar dis­arm­a­ment.

We did not plan “to break in­to,” but to enter through il­leg­al — non­func­tion­ing — fences around sites of known crim­in­al activ­ity [that in­clude] pro­du­cing, stor­ing, re­fur­bish­ing [and] threat­en­ing to use … il­leg­al weapons of mass de­struc­tion. These weapons place at risk and are cap­able of ex­tin­guish­ing all [life]. …

We are ob­liged by our con­sciences to act when we know are free to do so. … As long as one nuc­le­ar bomb or en­ergy fa­cil­ity ex­ists, all of life re­mains its po­ten­tial vic­tim.

GSN: How did you per­son­ally de­cide that you wanted to take part in this un­armed in­tru­sion at Y-12?

Rice: By pray­er, dis­cern­ment, ex­am­in­a­tion of con­science, and weigh­ing my pri­or­it­ies and re­spons­ib­il­ity [to ad­dress] root causes of suf­fer­ing in our world. I en­gaged in con­sulta­tion with people of con­science and in­teg­rity who are aware of the is­sues, and of my per­son­al strengths and lim­it­a­tions. I was ap­poin­ted to con­tin­ue my re­search in­to the pos­sib­il­it­ies of elim­in­at­ing nuc­le­ar­ism as a ma­jor cause of war and world poverty on many levels.

I knew of the [U.S.] gov­ern­ment’s policies to mod­ern­ize [the] nuc­le­ar [ar­sen­al] and re­fur­bish ex­ist­ing weapons of mass de­struc­tion rather than ful­fill … ex­ist­ing in­ter­na­tion­al laws, bind­ing prin­ciples, [and] treat­ies call­ing for nuc­le­ar dis­man­tle­ment in good faith.

… Private for-profit con­tract­ors [have sup­por­ted] this il­leg­al policy through [U.S.] plans, already failed and enorm­ously waste­ful, to build a new “plutoni­um pit fact­ory.” Its pur­pose was to en­sure [a] cap­ab­il­ity of adding 80 new ther­mo­nuc­lear weapons to the ar­sen­al of thou­sands, per year.

We chose to bring our mes­sage of truth to the em­ploy­ees. We de­cided Y-12 em­ploy­ees needed to know the truth that [there are al­tern­at­ives] to the un­law­ful, death-caus­ing work of con­struct­ing com­pon­ents for more nuc­le­ar war­heads.

GSN: You were 82 years old at the time of the Y-12 ac­tion.  What pro­vi­sions did you ar­range be­fore­hand, if any, for the pos­sib­il­ity that armed guards might have severely in­jured or killed you dur­ing the in­tru­sion?

Rice: I had [an] ex­pert and thor­ough med­ic­al as­sess­ment with ad­vice [on] diet, ex­er­cise [and] ad­equate habits of rest and re­cre­ation from work. I had time to pre­pare for an ex­ten­ded time from my usu­al min­is­tries.

Part of the pre­par­a­tion by [group] pray­er and dis­cern­ment … gave me con­fid­ence that the task was one worth giv­ing … my life [to ac­com­plish]. We were as­sured [we had] faith­ful sup­port­ers who were will­ing and able to meet our needs. …

GSN: What mind­set did you have be­fore­hand that al­lowed you to take such risks with your life?

Rice: Great ex­pect­ancy [and] trust, with ten­a­cious hope that we could bring truth and heal­ing … Things can al­ways be trans­formed in­to means for fos­ter­ing life, not des­troy­ing it, when used with mod­er­a­tion, wis­dom and cre­ativ­ity for the com­mon good.

GSN: Did you have a spe­cif­ic role to play on the team that broke in­to the Y-12 cam­pus? If so, what was it?

Rice: I ac­tu­ally con­ceived the name for our Plow­shares ac­tion: “Trans­form Now Plow­shares.” Just as each nuc­le­ar bomb ever used … has been giv­en a unique name, each Plow­shares ac­tion is giv­en a name.

I also car­ried and hung the “Cau­tion — Nuc­le­ar Crime Scene “¦” tape around three pil­lars in front of the — later known to us — Highly En­riched Urani­um Ma­ter­i­als Fa­cil­ity. …

We each as­sisted in la­beling the build­ing with spray-paint state­ments … and [in] sym­bol­ic­ally [pour­ing] two baby bottles of real hu­man blood on the build­ing. [We poured the blood] in sol­emn re­mem­brance of the lives lost [in the atom­ic-bomb­ings of] Hiroshi­ma and Na­ga­saki, and also of [our] will­ing­ness to give up our lives to pre­vent the con­tin­ued ex­ist­ence of nuc­le­ar weapons or en­ergy on this plan­et. …

GSN: As best you re­call, what thoughts were go­ing through your mind as your team cut through the first wire fence and tres­passed onto the fa­cil­ity’s grounds?

Rice: Def­in­itely, thoughts of grat­it­ude — not without a de­gree of amazement — that this was so easy and un­ob­served. These emo­tions in­creased as we were [able] to pass neatly through each of the three re­main­ing chain-[link] fences in less than 10 minutes.

[I also thought,] we were meant to do what we are do­ing. Carry on! …

GSN: Are there oth­er de­tails about what happened that day — be­fore, dur­ing or after the tres­passing — that have not yet been re­vealed pub­licly but that you would like to share with us?

Rice: Per­haps the fact that we were able to ac­com­plish all that we had hoped to do by means of visu­al, sym­bol­ic mes­sages. …

We also were giv­en time [to] sing peace hymns and ac­tu­ally read aloud jointly, [a] writ­ten [state­ment to] the first se­cur­ity guard [of our] in­ten­tions to bring love, truth, peace and friend­ship for all who work at this dan­ger­ous fa­cil­ity.

Also, [we named] the ac­tu­al laws — in­ter­na­tion­al and na­tion­al — “¦ which are broken by en­ga­ging in [the] pro­duc­tion and hand­ling [of nuc­le­ar weapons]. …

GSN: How has your time in cap­tiv­ity been? What activ­it­ies and thoughts have been filling the hours?

Rice: Re­spond­ing to … hun­dreds of let­ters [in sup­port of] the total elim­in­a­tion of these il­leg­al weapons and the re­dir­ec­tion of [funds now used] to store, pro­lif­er­ate or mod­ern­ize nuc­le­ar weapons.

[I have also been work­ing] to re­mind people [that after] 70 years … nuc­le­ar-weapons pro­duc­tion has not ended.

… Real, ur­gent needs [are] now be­ing largely neg­lected. Through care­fully de­signed, wise policies, we can re­dir­ect al­loc­a­tions [to] re­form … edu­ca­tion, trans­port­a­tion, health care, hous­ing, ag­ri­cul­ture, em­ploy­ment, en­ergy, etc.

Aware­ness con­tin­ues to grow about the [tril­lions of dol­lars] which [have] been en­tirely wasted through the failed nuc­le­ar-weapons in­dus­tri­al com­plex, [filling] the pock­ets of war­mon­ger­ing prof­it­eers [and] lob­by­ists. … By liv­ing with and build­ing re­la­tion­ships [among] those most vi­ol­ated by … a mil­it­ary-based cul­ture of vi­ol­ence, we are mu­tu­ally en­er­gized to work for trans­form­a­tions in mind and heart. …

GSN: How have you been treated by pris­on of­fi­cials and oth­er in­mates?

Rice: With genu­ine hon­or and re­spect for the ne­ces­sity of re­spons­ible ac­tion for peace. …

Most of the in­mates have been awakened to the root causes of dys­func­tion in the sys­tem of in­justice which per­vades the so-called justice [sys­tem] and pris­ons. … Pris­on of­fi­cials have re­cog­nized the im­port­ance of res­ist­ance to …  nuc­le­ar­ism as a means of false se­cur­ity. …

We do ex­per­i­ence bless­ings of non­vi­ol­ence at work where there is [typ­ic­ally] vi­ol­ence, and many pos­it­ive signs for hope, the longer we [pray to­geth­er] for peace. …

But we also ex­per­i­ence [a] heart-[rend­ing] edu­ca­tion as we share life in all its as­pects … with the vic­tims of … im­per­i­al­ist­ic wars. The men­tal­ity of mil­it­ary vi­ol­ence and dis­em­power­ment by tor­ture and fear per­vades as fal­lout of the nuc­le­ar-in­dus­tri­al com­plex. …

GSN: The pub­lic re­ac­tion to the break-in has fo­cused over­whelm­ingly on ques­tions it raised about the se­cur­ity of the U.S. nuc­le­ar stock­pile. Your group, however, has been clear that the ac­tion was in­ten­ded as a call to elim­in­ate all nuc­le­ar weapons. To what de­gree are you sat­is­fied with the pub­lic re­sponse? Are there any re­spects in which you would prefer it to have been dif­fer­ent?

Rice: … The ex­pres­sion “break-in” is a mis­rep­res­ent­a­tion. It im­plies vi­ol­ent de­struc­tion of a real prop­erty. We leg­ally entered by vir­tue of [our] re­spons­ib­il­ity to op­pose and ex­pose non­vi­ol­ently known crimes.

We ac­ted in obed­i­ence to the re­quire­ments of the Nurem­berg Prin­ciples and U.S. Con­sti­tu­tion Art­icle 6. Many in­ter­na­tion­al laws and treat­ies call for the elim­in­a­tion of all nuc­le­ar weapons in good faith. Yet the U.S. has con­tin­ued for 70 years in secrecy and fraud­u­lent prof­it­eer­ing in con­struct­ing more than 70,000 nuc­le­ar war­heads. …

The pub­lic re­sponse was more than we ima­gined, but surely not yet as ef­fect­ive as we see is truly called for after 70 years of faith­ful res­ist­ance by many people of con­science.

I would hope to see … en­act­ments [of] laws such as H.R. 1650, the re­vised 2013 le­gis­la­tion pro­posed by D.C. [Con­gres­sion­al Del­eg­ate] Elean­or Holmes Norton, which calls for dis­arm­a­ment in good faith and real­loc­a­tion of funds to­ward ad­dress­ing the blatant so­cial needs in the coun­try.

GSN: How do you re­spond to the ar­gu­ment that dis­mant­ling a single na­tion’s nuc­le­ar force could leave that coun­try’s people vul­ner­able to a dev­ast­at­ing at­tack?

Rice: The very pres­ence of nuc­le­ar weapons … evokes the re­sponse of mis­trust, ter­ror­ism, an­ger and the mo­tiv­a­tion to vi­ol­ent means by the ter­ror­ized parties.

Dif­fer­ences [should] be settled by good-faith ne­go­ti­ations between parties. The trust must be earned by cre­at­ing trans­par­ent, just, re­spect­ful re­la­tion­ships between all ne­go­ti­at­ing parties so that real dia­logue, with com­pas­sion­ate listen­ing, can take place.

Fear must nev­er be a weapon for wield­ing power between equal par­ti­cipants for dia­logue. Fear is driv­en out by genu­ine love and com­pas­sion.

Let us be real­ist­ic. War is nev­er a solu­tion.

GSN: Do you dis­agree with the con­ten­tion that nuc­le­ar de­terrence helped pre­vent a World War III, in a way that non-nuc­le­ar de­terrence was un­able to do in the first two world wars? Please briefly ex­plain the basis for your view.

Rice: Yes, I dis­agree with the fact that nuc­le­ar­ism is ever or could ever be a de­terrence to war.

Any nuc­le­ar war des­troys both sides — launch­ers and re­spon­ders and the en­tire plan­et. …

GSN: How do you re­spond to the con­cern that in the case of glob­al nuc­le­ar dis­arm­a­ment, a single cheat­er with even just one il­li­cit nuc­le­ar weapon could ef­fect­ively black­mail the rest of the world, and per­haps be un­deterred by the solely con­ven­tion­al arms that re­main?

Rice: Every nuc­le­ar weapon is il­li­cit, and can mo­tiv­ate the ac­quis­i­tion of non-nuc­le­ar states to [ac­quire their own nuc­le­ar weapons].

But … ex­ist­ing con­ven­tion­al arms are also un­eth­ic­al and im­mor­al. War is im­mor­al and un­eth­ic­al and can­not ef­fect­ively settle dis­agree­ments. … Com­pas­sion cre­ates and main­tains mu­tu­al re­spect­ful re­la­tions, nev­er “con­ven­tion­al” weapons.

Glob­al nuc­le­ar dis­arm­a­ment has nev­er been tried, [and] hence has nev­er failed. Each ex­ist­ing … nuc­le­ar weapon does ef­fect­ively “black­mail” the rest of the world be­cause of the risk [it cre­ates]. …  Threat to use is im­plied in its con­struc­tion, [vi­ol­at­ing] in­ter­na­tion­al hu­man­it­ari­an and in­ter­na­tion­al laws.

“Solely con­ven­tion­al arms” can also [in­dis­crim­in­ately des­troy] lives and prop­erty, [and] hence [are] also im­mor­al. …

GSN: In your view, what is ne­ces­sary to cre­ate the polit­ic­al will around the world to ne­go­ti­ate the elim­in­a­tion of all nuc­le­ar weapons? Is it just a mat­ter of in­creas­ing pub­lic pres­sure in coun­tries where free speech al­lows for that?

Rice: … Edu­ca­tion, com­mu­nic­a­tion and trans­par­ency, re­veal­ing and re­cog­niz­ing that all are equal in [their] right to life. …

In­di­vidu­als and na­tion-states are equally and uni­ver­sally [re­spons­ible for] cre­at­ing, ac­cord­ing to their ca­pa­cit­ies, the “polit­ic­al will” to cre­ate and main­tain the … edu­ca­tion, com­mu­nic­a­tion and re­la­tion­ships which can ef­fect­ively elim­in­ate nuc­le­ar weapons. … Where there is the will there is a way.

GSN: How do you re­spond to the view that break­ing in­to Y-12 was an act of treas­on against the United States?

Rice: … Those con­trolling [Y-12’s] il­leg­al activ­it­ies are [des­troy­ing] life with­in and bey­ond the U.S., and con­sequently are treas­on­ous … against the stated pur­pose of the U.S.: To be a gov­ern­ment of, for and by the people.

Y-12 has robbed the people of their share in their justly earned tax dol­lars which have built and main­tained the il­leg­al activ­it­ies at Y-12 since 1943, when it was secretly con­struc­ted. …

GSN: You now face a pos­sible life sen­tence for the Y-12 in­tru­sion. How would you most like your ac­tion, and your dec­ades of pri­or dis­arm­a­ment act­iv­ism, to be re­membered?

Rice: I think there are enough wise people of con­science and leg­al pro­fes­sion­al­ism in this coun­try [to] ef­fect­ively re­store justice in the court sys­tem. If not, the al­tern­at­ive [out­come would] be­stir their con­sciences to act [in de­fense of] the fu­ture of [the] Earth. …

So I ex­pect only a life sen­tence to con­tin­ue to live in truth, com­pas­sion and love for all of God’s cre­ation. … Keep your eyes on the prize: a healed, peace­ful plan­et. …

[Wheth­er] free or un­justly in­car­cer­ated … one is al­ways free to “act justly, love ten­derly and be humble.” …

This art­icle was pub­lished in Glob­al Se­cur­ity News­wire, which is pro­duced in­de­pend­ently by Na­tion­al Journ­al Group un­der con­tract with the Nuc­le­ar Threat Ini­ti­at­ive. NTI is a non­profit, non­par­tis­an group work­ing to re­duce glob­al threats from nuc­le­ar, bio­lo­gic­al, and chem­ic­al weapons.

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2 hours ago

"Over at the White House, I like to say we're in the promise-keeping business these days." That was Vice President Pence's message to CPAC on Thursday night. Specifically, he pledged to repeal and replace Obamacare, and reform the immigration system.

Alt-Right Leader Spencer Removed from CPAC
17 hours ago
Cruz Predicts Another SCOTUS Vacancy “This Summer”
22 hours ago

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