Responding to Sony Hack, Senate Advances Major Cybersecurity Bill

The Senate Intelligence Committee passed a controversial information-sharing measure Thursday, despite fears it could embolden more NSA spying.

National Journal
March 12, 2015, 12:24 p.m.

The Sen­ate In­tel­li­gence Com­mit­tee ap­proved a bill Thursday seek­ing to in­crease the shar­ing of di­git­al data between the gov­ern­ment and private sec­tor, mark­ing the first ser­i­ous move to up­grade the na­tion’s cy­ber de­fenses since the crip­pling hack on Sony Pic­tures late last year.

In a closed-door meet­ing, the pan­el ad­vanced 14-1 the Cy­ber­se­cur­ity In­form­a­tion Shar­ing Act, which would provide ex­pan­ded leg­al li­ab­il­ity to com­pan­ies so they more eas­ily share di­git­al data with the gov­ern­ment—an ar­range­ment the bill’s back­ers say would help de­tect, pre­vent, and re­spond to cy­ber in­tru­sions.

The bill’s pas­sage comes des­pite con­cerns from pri­vacy ad­voc­ates that the meas­ure will bol­ster the gov­ern­ment’s powers to con­duct even more sur­veil­lance on Amer­ic­ans.

Sen­ate In­tel­li­gence Com­mit­tee Chair­man Richard Burr called the vote a “truly his­tor­ic” step for­ward that will al­low com­pan­ies to de­ploy “dif­fer­ent de­fense mech­an­isms” to block and lim­it cy­ber­at­tacks.

“This bill will not pre­vent [all cy­ber­at­tacks] from hap­pen­ing,” Burr told re­port­ers. But he ad­ded that the le­gis­la­tion would have gone a long way in min­im­iz­ing the dam­age wrought by re­cent hacks on com­pan­ies ran­ging from An­them In­sur­ance to Home De­pot.

Only Demo­crat­ic Sen. Ron Wyden, a staunch civil-liber­ties ad­voc­ate, op­posed the meas­ure, call­ing it “a sur­veil­lance bill by an­oth­er name.”

“Cy­ber­at­tacks and hack­ing against U.S. com­pan­ies and net­works are a ser­i­ous prob­lem for the Amer­ic­an eco­nomy and for our na­tion­al se­cur­ity,” Wyden said in a state­ment im­me­di­ately after the vote. “It makes sense to en­cour­age private firms to share in­form­a­tion about cy­ber­se­cur­ity threats. But this in­form­a­tion shar­ing is only ac­cept­able if there are strong pro­tec­tions for the pri­vacy rights of law-abid­ing Amer­ic­an cit­izens.”

The vote marks Con­gress’s first ma­jor step on cy­ber vul­ner­ab­il­it­ies since last year’s Sony hack made data se­cur­ity a top pri­or­ity for the White House and law­makers in both parties. It also ar­rives amid a string of hacks, such as the re­cent theft of data of some 80 mil­lion An­them In­sur­ance cus­tom­ers.

Sen­ate lead­er­ship has in­dic­ated it wants to move quickly on the in­form­a­tion-shar­ing bill. An aide for Sen­ate Ma­jor­ity Lead­er Mitch Mc­Con­nell said the le­gis­la­tion was a “pri­or­ity” but did not yet have a timetable for hit­ting the floor. Burr in­dic­ated a floor vote could hap­pen as soon as April.

“14-1 means I have all the con­fid­ence in the world to go to Sen. Mc­Con­nell and get this ex­ped­ited,” Burr said.

The meas­ure still faces sev­er­al po­ten­tial road­b­locks—and chief among them are the pri­vacy con­cerns that helped stall the bill’s pro­gress last sum­mer.

After the Sen­ate in­tel­li­gence com­mit­tee passed a sim­il­ar ver­sion on a 12-3 vote, that bill failed to gain trac­tion amid con­cerns that it would pave the way for com­pan­ies such as Google and Face­book to share more per­son­al data with in­tel­li­gence agen­cies. Un­der the bill, cy­ber in­form­a­tion is routed through the De­part­ment of Home­land Se­cur­ity, which can then be shared in real-time with oth­er gov­ern­ment agen­cies.

“This isn’t an in­form­a­tion shar­ing bill at all,” Gabe Rottman, a le­gis­lat­ive coun­sel with the Amer­ic­an Civil Liber­ties Uni­on, said in a state­ment. “It’s a new and vast sur­veil­lance au­thor­ity that might as well be called Pat­ri­ot Act 2.0 giv­en how much per­son­al in­form­a­tion it would fun­nel to the NSA,” he ad­ded, re­fer­ring to the post-9/11 le­gis­la­tion un­der which the in­tel­li­gence com­munity de­rives much of its spy­ing au­thor­ity.

Des­pite the push­back, in­form­a­tion-shar­ing has leapfrogged oth­er policy pri­or­it­ies in re­cent months—both in Con­gress and at the White House—due largely to the Sony breach, which gov­ern­ment of­fi­cials pub­licly blamed on North Korea. Law­makers of both parties have said the Sony hit awakened them to the im­port­ance and ur­gency of passing cy­ber­se­cur­ity le­gis­la­tion, and the is­sue earned some ded­ic­ated at­ten­tion dur­ing Pres­id­ent Obama’s State of the Uni­on ad­dress in Janu­ary.

It is not im­me­di­ately clear wheth­er the White House sup­ports the lan­guage the Sen­ate pan­el ap­proved, however. Though the ad­min­is­tra­tion views in­form­a­tion shar­ing as a key cy­ber­se­cur­ity pri­or­ity, Obama did is­sue a veto threat in 2013 when the House passed a CISA coun­ter­part. The le­gis­la­tion lacked ap­pro­pri­ate pri­vacy safe­guards and ran the risk of grant­ing cor­por­a­tions too much im­munity, the pres­id­ent said at the time.

Sen. Di­anne Fein­stein, the in­tel­li­gence pan­el’s top Demo­crat, told re­port­ers after the vote that she had been in dis­cus­sions with White House chief of staff Denis Mc­Donough and that “he be­lieves a num­ber of im­prove­ments have been made.”

To com­bat pri­vacy con­cerns, the in­tel­li­gence com­mit­tee cir­cu­lated a CISA draft last month that con­tained ad­di­tion­al pro­tec­tions, such as tough­er re­quire­ments on scrub­bing per­son­ally iden­ti­fi­able in­form­a­tion be­fore com­pan­ies can enter in­to the in­form­a­tion-shar­ing ar­range­ment. On Thursday, Fein­stein said that Demo­crats had sub­mit­ted 15 pri­vacy amend­ments, and that 12 had been ac­cep­ted either in part or in full.

CISA’s pas­sage in­dic­ates it is the pre­ferred route for­ward on in­form­a­tion-shar­ing among con­gres­sion­al lead­er­ship. Sen. Thomas Carp­er, the top Demo­crat on the Home­land Se­cur­ity Com­mit­tee, in­tro­duced a sep­ar­ate info-shar­ing bill last month with lan­guage that closely ad­hered to the White House’s re­com­mend­a­tions. But Carp­er in­tro­duced the meas­ure without a single co-spon­sor, and it has yet to gain trac­tion.

Pri­vacy ad­voc­ates gen­er­ally saw the White House pro­pos­al on in­form­a­tion-shar­ing, which was trot­ted out this year, as an im­prove­ment over pre­vi­ous it­er­a­tions of CISA. But some also said they could not sup­port any in­form­a­tion-shar­ing le­gis­la­tion if Con­gress did not first pass sub­stant­ive NSA re­form. Ex­ist­ing au­thor­it­ies to NSA spy­ing un­der the Pat­ri­ot Act are due to sun­set on June 1, mean­ing law­makers will have to act in some fash­ion be­fore then or risk let­ting cer­tain sur­veil­lance pro­grams ex­pire en­tirely.

Skep­tics of the bill passed Thursday were fur­ther agit­ated by the secrecy of the pro­cess. The vote was held dur­ing a closed-door meet­ing—a stand­ard prac­tice for the in­tel­li­gence com­mit­tee.

“The bill is com­plex and it needs a lot of work,” said Greg No­jeim, a seni­or coun­sel at the Cen­ter for Demo­cracy & Trans­par­ency. “The com­mit­tee’s con­sid­er­a­tion of a bill like this, which will im­pact the pri­vacy of In­ter­net users world wide, should nev­er be un­der­taken be­hind closed doors.”

The com­mit­tee is ex­pec­ted to pub­licly re­lease the passed lan­guage Fri­day or Monday, a Fein­stein aide said.

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