Every day, hundreds of Syrians flee their country, seeking shelter in neighboring countries. Some are traveling farther, to Europe, bringing what few belongings they have. What the refugees don’t know — what their host countries don’t either — is that some of their possessions may be dangerous.
Late last month, the World Health Organization confirmed in Syria 10 cases of polio, a crippling disease largely eradicated in the developed world. As the stream of Syrians pouring into other parts of the world continues, experts say, the risk of an outbreak in polio-free countries climbs.
Government health officials are scrambling to vaccinate young children in refugee camps, where close quarters and poor hygiene create breeding crowds for any communicable disease, including polio. Although Syria’s last polio case surfaced in 1999 thanks to a rigorous national public-health campaign, the country’s vaccination rates have dropped to 60 percent during the ongoing civil war.
In a memo published Thursday in the the medical journal The Lancet, two German public-health experts warn that Syria’s outbreak may threaten Europe. “Vaccinating only Syrian refugees — as has been recommended by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control — must be judged as insufficient,” they write. “More comprehensive measures should be taken into consideration.”
“The likelihood of poliovirus spreading from Syria to neighbouring countries hosting Syrian refugees is high,” an Oct. 23 report from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control read. The organization advised Middle Eastern countries hosting Syrian refugees to “assess the level of transmission” of the disease and European nations to “assess [refugees’] vaccination status on arrival and provide polio vaccination” as needed.
Today, according to WHO, polio is endemic in only three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Most European countries, free of the disease for decades, use inactivated polio vaccine, or IPV, administered through an injection, rather than oral polio vaccination, taken by mouth, which was discontinued because it caused, in rare cases, acute flaccid paralysis, the main symptom of polio.
According to the Lancet letter, IPV is very effective in preventing the disease, but does not provide complete protection from infection. Transmission of the disease can only be stymied, the experts write, if IPV coverage remains widespread and routine. In polio-free countries, that’s not always the case. Countries like Austria, Ukraine, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, where vaccination rates are low, are most at risk, the experts say.
Because only one in 200 people infected with the virus exhibit symptoms of the disease, many carriers don’t know they’re infected, nor that they’re putting others at risk. The virus can circulate through a population for up to a year before a single case of the acute paraylsis appears, the memo explains. By then, hundreds of people could already unknowingly infected.
Only some countries within the European Union still offer the oral vaccination, Lancet reports, and none have a stockpile of it for emergency use for a possible outbreak.
What We're Following See More »
Hillary Clinton hopes that television ratings for the candidates' acceptance speeches at their respective conventions aren't foreshadowing of similar results at the polls in November. Preliminary results from the networks and cable channels show that 34.9 million people tuned in for Donald Trump's acceptance speech while 33.3 million watched Clinton accept the Democratic nomination. However, it is still possible that the numbers are closer than these ratings suggest: the numbers don't include ratings from PBS or CSPAN, which tend to attract more Democratic viewers.
The US Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals on Friday overturned North Carolina's 2013 voter ID law, saying it was passed with “discriminatory intent." The decision sends the case back to the district judge who initially dismissed challenges to the law. "The ruling prohibits North Carolina from requiring photo identification from voters in future elections, including the November 2016 general election, restores a week of early voting and preregistration for 16- and 17-year-olds, and ensures that same-day registration and out-of-precinct voting will remain in effect."
An oil pipeline almost as long as the much-debated Keystone XL has won final approval to transport crude from North Dakota to Illinois, traveling through South Dakota and Iowa along the way. "The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers gave the final blessing to the Dakota Access pipeline on Tuesday. Developers now have the last set of permits they need to build through the small portion of federal land the line crosses, which includes major waterways like the Mississippi and the Missouri rivers. The so-called Bakken pipeline goes through mostly state and private land."