"President Trump named John R. Bolton, a hard-line former American ambassador to the United Nations, as his third national security adviser on Thursday, continuing a shake-up that creates one of the most hawkish national security teams of any White House in recent history. Mr. Bolton will replace Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster, the battle-tested Army officer who was tapped last year to stabilize a turbulent foreign policy operation but who never developed a comfortable relationship with the president." Bolton was an outspoken advocate of military action during the George W. Bush administration, and has "called for action against Iran and North Korea."
TransCanada acknowledged Tuesday that the Keystone XL Pipeline — even if approved — will not be operational until 2016. It’s the latest admission that the project, long stalled in the federal approval process, is losing relevance. The pipeline has been a flashpoint of controversy for environmentalists and industry leaders, but as the administration has drawn out its reviews, the pipeline’s significance from an energy standpoint has faded.
Oil-by-rail transportation has filled the gap in recent years where pipelines have met delays. The amount of oil shipped as U.S. train cargo has doubled in the past two years, and Canada is exporting oil barrels in the six figures daily after shipping just marginal amounts a year ago. One oil executive told National Journal the rail boom and new pipeline alternatives have rendered Keystone nonessential as a transporter of U.S. oil.
The spike in oil shipment alternatives has come largely over the past two years, and it’s likely to continue to expand in the two years it would take to build Keystone. “Rail has a first-mover advantage as a transport method for crude oil,” conceded Andrew Black, president of the Association of Oil Pipe Lines. “Rail can gain market share while pipelines race to catch up.” Left unsaid is that the pipeline “catch-up” can be stalled by federal policy, not just construction time.
Meanwhile, environmental groups have taken heat for focusing efforts on the pipeline. New York Magazine‘s Jonathan Chait called the fight “marginally relevant to the cause of stopping global warming,” noting that the pipeline would contribute just a few tenths of a percent to U.S. greenhouse-gas emissions, while coal-plant emissions are far larger.
But that isn’t likely to keep green groups from continuing the fight. An International Energy Agency report released earlier this month found that construction of the pipeline would cause tar-sands production to double by 2035. The added environmental and climate costs of that extra production has added fuel to the fire of environmentalists’ arguments.
No one doubts that Obama’s decision on Keystone will provoke heated responses from a variety of stakeholders. But, increasingly, the volume of the debate isn’t matched by the significance of the project.
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"When a Russian news agency reached out to George Papadopoulos to request an interview shortly before the 2016 election," deputy communications director Bryan Lanza encouraged him to respond. "You should do it," Lanza wrote in a September 2016 email, "emphasizing the benefits of a U.S. 'partnership with Russia.'" The Trump campaign has "sought to paint the 30-year old energy consultant as a low level volunteer" in the campaign, but recently disclosed emails show that Papadopoulos had contact with "senior campaign figures" in the Trump campaign, "such as chief executive Stephen K. Bannon and adviser Michael Flynn," who encouraged him to "broker ties between Trump and top foreign officials."