Listed for each member of the House are results of the 2002 general, runoff and primary elections, as well as the 2000 general elections (results of any special elections are also listed). Gubernatorial and senatorial results are presented in a like manner. Votes and percentages are included, indicating the margin of victory (due to the process of rounding up and rounding down, some totals may equal more or less than 100%). Candidates receiving less than 4% of the total vote are grouped together and listed as "Other." Election returns were collected from the individual states. Where a state abbreviation and district number appear in parenthesis next to an election year, this indicates that the member ran in a differently numbered congressional district that year.
Prior Winning Percentage. This feature provides winning percentage of the vote in past elections; in Senate profiles, the word "House" indicates the election that year was for the U.S. House. If no percentage is provided for an election year, it indicates that the member lost or did not run for reelection that year; generally this will occur where there has been a gap in service. An odd election year (e.g. 1989) indicates a special election; two elections in the same year indicate a special and a general election.
Presidential Vote. The 1996 and 2000 presidential vote is included for each state. Results of the presidential primaries were provided by the states; caucus results are not provided. Due to redistricting, 1996 presidential vote results are unavailable for all 435 congressional districts. The 2000 presidential vote, however, is included here for each congressional district. It has been recompiled to reflect the presidential vote within the new district lines in effect for the 2002 election. Presidential vote by congressional district is estimated by Polidata, from political databases used in the 2001-2002 redistricting cycle in a number of states. Political stakeholders frequently use previous election results to assess the partisan base of proposed districts. However, unlike census datasets, which are developed by one entity, delivered in a standard format and available for each census block, these political databases are produced by different entities in each state, each of which may use different standards. In most cases these data were distributed to the census blocks based upon a population factor. In this manner, whenever a census block was assigned to a district, a certain number of estimated votes were carried with the block. It is from aggregations of the votes for the census blocks that the estimates for the districts were made. While estimates of votes are included, the percentage values generally provide the more reliable information. The votes for minor party candidates are included where available but are not consistent across all 50 states. The total of the congressional district votes may not add up to the total state vote, because some votes (overseas, military and some absentee and early votes) are not assigned to a congressional district.
All data are derived from candidates' campaign finance reports and party reports available from the Federal Election Commission (FEC). The dollar figure, in parentheses to the right of the election results, represents the candidates' net disbursements (expenditures) for the period beginning January 1, 2001, and ending December 31, 2002. These figures may not include candidate loans that have been repaid, nor does it include any corrections or amendments filed with the FEC after May 2003.
The Key Votes section attempts to illustrate a legislator's stance on important votes where he or she must vote for or against a national issue. The process grossly oversimplifies the legislative system where months of debate, amendment, pressure, persuasion, and compromise go into a final floor vote. However, the voting record remains the best indication of a member's general ideologies and position on specific issues. Following is a list of key votes used. A member who was absent, voted present, or who was not in office at the time of a particular vote receives an "*". Roll-call data were drawn from Congressional Observer Publications at www.proaxis.com/cop, a private legislative tracking company.
House Votes, 107th Congress:
Senate Votes, 107th Congress:
- Approve Bush Tax Cuts (HR 1836) Approve conference report for $1.35 trillion in tax cuts. May 26, 2001. (240-154) (D: 28-153; R: 211-0; I: 1-1)
- Limit Patients' Bill of Rights (HR 2563) Limit non-economic damages for liability awards in the patients' rights proposal. Aug. 2, 2001. (218-213) (D: 3-206; R: 214-6; I: 1-1)
- Campaign Finance Reform (HR 2356) Reform campaign finance laws to eliminate most uses of soft money, raise contribution limits, and impose limitations on pre-election advertising targeted at candidates. Feb. 14, 2002. (240-189) (D:198-12; R: 41-176; I: 1-1)
- Ban ANWR Development (HR 4) Maintain existing protection of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge by striking language in the bill that repeals the prohibition against energy development in ANWR. Aug. 1, 2001. (206-223) (D: 171-36; R: 34-186; I: 1-1)
- Faith-Based Charities (HR 7) Permit federal incentives for social services provided by religious organizations. July 19, 2001. (233-198) (D:15-193; R: 217-4; I: 1-1)
- Bar Gays in the Boy Scouts (HR 2944) Bar funds for the District of Columbia to enforce anti-discrimination ruling against the Boy Scouts for expelling two gay Scouts. Sept. 25, 2001. (262-152) (D: 54-143; R: 207-8; I: 1-1)
- Ban Partial-Birth Abortion (HR 4965) Ban what foes describe as "partial-birth" abortion, with criminal penalties for those who perform the procedure. July 24, 2002. (274-151) (D: 65-141; R: 208-9; I: 1-1)
- Arm Commercial Pilots (HR 4635) Permit commercial airplane pilots to carry firearms and use force during a flight. July 10, 2002. (310-113) (D: 102-102; R: 206-11; I: 2-0)
- Trade Promotion Authority (HR 3005) Extend "trade promotion authority" for the president to negotiate international trade agreements. Dec. 6, 2001. (215-214) (D: 21-189; R: 194-93; I: 0-2)
- Bar Funds for Intl. Court (HR 4546) Bar funds for the International Criminal Court. May 10, 2002. (264-152) (D: 59-143; R: 204-8; I: 1-1)
- Authorize Force in Iraq (HJRes 114) Authorize the use of U.S. military force against Iraq. Oct. 10, 2002. (296-133) (D: 81-126; R: 215-6; I: 0-1)
- Deny Home. Sec. Dept. Union (HR 5005) Permit the president to deny employees of the Homeland Security Department from joining a union if their membership might jeopardize national security. July 26, 2002. (229-201) (D: 11-198; R: 217-2; I: 1-1)
- Approve Bush Tax Cuts (HR 1836) Cut taxes by $1.35 trillion over 10 years. May 23, 2001. (62-38) (D: 12-38; R: 50-0)
- Expand Patients' Rights (S 1052) Expands patients' rights in dealing with insurers and health maintenance organizations. June 29, 2001. (59-36) (D: 50-0; R: 9-35; I: 0-1)
- Campaign Finance Reform (HR 2356) Reform campaign finance laws to eliminate most uses of "soft money," raise contribution limits, and impose limitations on pre-election advertising targeted at candidates. March 20, 2002. (60-40) (D: 48-2; R: 11-38; I: 1-0)
- Permit ANWR Development (S 517) Cloture motion to end debate on proposal to allow oil and gas development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. April 18, 2002. (46-54) (D: 5-45; R: 41-8; I: 0-1)
- Confirm Ashcroft as AG Confirm John Ashcroft as Attorney General. Feb. 1, 2001. (58-42) (D: 8-42; R: 50-0)
- Bar Gays in the Boy Scouts (S 1) Permit education funds to be withheld from schools that prohibit the Boy Scouts from using their facilities. June 14, 2001. (51-49) (D: 8-42; R: 43-6; I: 0-1)
- $ for Hate Crime Prosecution (S 625) Cloture motion to end debate on a proposal to prosecute hate crimes. June 11, 2002. (54-43; failed to receive required 60 votes) (D: 49-1; R: 4-42; I; 1-0)
- Overseas Military Abortions (S 2514) Provide access to abortion services for U.S. military personnel and their dependents stationed overseas. June 21, 2002. (52-40) (D: 46-2; R: 5-38; I: 1-0)
- Bar Coop. With Intl. Court (HR 3338) Prohibit U.S. cooperation with the planned International Criminal Court. Dec. 7, 2001. (78-21) (D: 32-19; R: 46-2)
- Trade Promotion Authority (S 3009) Extend "trade promotion authority" for the president to negotiate trade agreements. May 23, 2002. (66-30) (D: 24-25; R: 41-5; I: 1-0)
- Authorize Force in Iraq (HJRes 114) Authorize the use of U.S. military force against Iraq. Oct. 11, 2002. (77-23) (D: 29-21; R: 48-1; I: 0-1)
- Homeland Sec. Dept. Union (HR 5005) Cloture motion on proposal to limit debate on proposal for Homeland Security Department, excluding presidential authority to bar employees from union membership for national security reasons. Oct. 1, 2002. (45-52) (D: 42-6; R: 2-46; I: 1-0)
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